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18 kinds of amino acids
Sep 01, 2017
  • Amino acid classification

     Amino acids are classified into two categories: essential amino acids and non essential amino acids, according to whether they can be synthesized in the body. 

     There are 8 essential amino acids for adults, including lysine, methionine, leucine, isoleucine, threonine, valine, tryptophan and phenylalanine. For infants, histidine is also an essential amino acid. 

     Non essential amino acids (nonessential amino acid, NEAA) can be synthesized in animals as a source of nutrients that do not need to be supplemented externally.

     In general, the essential amino acids in plants and microorganisms are synthesized by themselves, and these are not called non essential amino acids. For humans, non essential amino acids are glycine, alanine, serine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid (and its amine), proline, arginine, histidine, tyrosine and cystine. These amino acids are synthesized by carbohydrate metabolites or from essential amino acids to the carbon chain, which is further introduced into amino acids by aminotransferase. 

      Some non essential amino acids, such as cystine and tyrosine, can also save the need for methionine and phenylalanine in essential amino acids if they are abundant in supply.

No.

Abbreviation

MG

PI

R-Group

Gly

G

75.07

6.06

-H

Ala

A

89.09

6.11

-CH3

Val

V

117.15

6.00

-CH-(CH3)2

Leu

L

131.17

6.01

-CH2-CH(CH3)2

Ile

I

131.17

6.05

-CH(CH3)-CH2-CH3

Phe

F

165.19

5.49

-CH2-C6H5

Trp

W

204.23

5.89

-C8NH6

Tyr

Y

181.19

5.64

-CH2-C6H4-OH

Asp

D

133.10

2.85

-CH2-COOH

Asn

N

132.12

5.41

-CH2-CONH2

Glu

E

147.13

3.15

-(CH2)2-COOH

Lys

K

146.19

9.60

-(CH2)4-NH2

Gln

Q

146.15

5.65

-(CH2)2-CONH2

Met

M

149.21

5.74

-(CH2)-S-CH3

Ser

S

105.09

5.68

-CH2-OH

Thr

T

119.12

5.60

-CH(CH3)-OH

Cys

C

121.16

5.05

-CH2-SH

Pro

P

115.13

6.30

-C3-H6

His

H

155.16

7.60


Arg

R

174.20

10.76


  • Function of  amino acid

1. Proteins in the body, digestion and absorption is accomplished by amino acids

    as in the first nutritional elements of protein, its role in food nutrition is obviously, but it is in the body and can not be directly used, but by small molecules into amino acids after use.

2. The role of nitrogen balance

    when the quality and quantity of protein in daily diet are suitable, the amount of nitrogen intake is equal to the amount of nitrogen excreted from feces, urine and skin, which is called the total nitrogen balance. In fact, it is the balance between the continuous synthesis and decomposition of protein and amino acids. The daily dietary protein should be kept in a certain range, and the body can still regulate the amount of protein metabolism to maintain the nitrogen balance when the amount of food is suddenly increased and reduced. Eating excess protein exceeds the body's ability to regulate, and the balance mechanism will be destroyed. Without protein, the protein in the body is still decomposed, and the balance of negative nitrogen continues to occur. If it is not taken promptly to correct it, it will eventually lead to the death of the antibody.

3. Change into sugar or fat

    a- ketoacid produced by amino acid catabolism, metabolized along with different characteristics, on the metabolic pathway of sugar or fat. A- ketoacid can be used to synthesize new amino acids, either into sugar or fat, or into three carboxyl cycles and decompose into CO2 and H2O and release energy.

4. Participation in enzymes, hormones and some vitamins

    the chemical nature of enzymes is protein (amino acid molecular composition), such as amylase, pepsin, cholinesterase, carbonic anhydrase, transaminase and so on. Nitrogen containing hormone ingredients are proteins or their derivatives, such as growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, epinephrine, insulin, promoting intestinal hormone. Some vitamins are converted from amino acids or combined with proteins. Enzymes, hormones and vitamins play an important role in regulating physiological functions and catalyzing metabolism.

5. The need for the essential amino acids of the human body

     the required amount of essential amino acids for adults is about 20% of the protein requirement, - 37%.

  • Effects of amino acids on the development of crops

1. early germination, high germination rate

    The application of amino acid humic acid can accelerate seed germination and raise the rate of emergence, especially in early spring and low temperature (generally 1~3 days ahead of germination, and the rate of germination increased by 10 ~ 30%).

2. the root system developed, strong absorption

    Amino acids have special effect on crop root development, many agricultural workers said "root amino acid fertilizer, effects on root mainly in root and growth, stimulate the division of meristematic cells, the root, root number, root amount, root elongation, resulting in ability to absorb moisture and crop have a greatly enhanced.

3. effects on growth of aboveground nutrients

     On the basis of sufficient supply of nutrients, the stimulation of amino acids can make the vegetative growth of the upper part of the plant vigorous, and show plant height, stem diameter, leaf number, dry matter accumulation and so on.

4. effects on Yield and component factors

     Amino acids are different for different crops, factors of grain crops, to yield more and more grains, panicle, 1000 grain weight, reduce the effect of early yield was good for tillering. Effects of amino acids on physiological metabolism and enzyme activities in crops

Amino acids into the plants, stimulating effect on plants, mainly manifested in the increase of respiration, photosynthesis, enzyme activity increases, so that the fruit early ripe, high yields, improve the output value.

      Beijing, Henan and Gansu demonstration and popularization of amino acid organic fertilizer, the results showed that wheat yield increased by 6.8-12%, with less investment, quick effect, long fertilizer effect (fertilizer effect for more than one year), and significant economic benefits. The large area test of wheat in Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences showed that the yield increase was more than 11%, and the input-output ratio was 1:40. The effect was excellent, so it was suitable for popularization and popularization.

      The statistical data of Gongzhuling City Bureau of agriculture Jilin province showed that the application of amino acid, can promote the Early Maturing Maize, large area demonstration results show that compared with other fertilizer was increased by 7 - 9%, 25-40 kilograms of corn per acre income.

      According to Southwest Agricultural University pilot, watermelon after amino acid application, sugar content increased by 13-31.3%, vitamin C content increased by 3-42.6%.

Effects of amino acids on physiological metabolism and enzyme activities in crops

Amino acids into the plants, stimulating effect on plants, mainly manifested in the increase of respiration, photosynthesis, enzyme activity increases, so that the fruit early ripe, high yields, improve the output value.

       Beijing, Henan and Gansu demonstration and popularization of amino acid organic fertilizer, the results showed that wheat yield increased by 6.8-12%, with less investment, quick effect, long fertilizer effect (fertilizer effect for more than one year), and significant economic benefits. The large area test of wheat in Henan Academy of Agricultural Sciences showed that the yield increase was more than 11%, and the input-output ratio was 1:40. The effect was excellent, so it was suitable for popularization and popularization.

The statistical data of Gongzhuling City Bureau of agriculture Jilin province showed that the application of amino acid, can promote the Early Maturing Maize, large area demonstration results show that compared with other fertilizer was increased by 7 - 9%, 25-40 kilograms of corn per acre income.

       According to Southwest Agricultural University pilot, watermelon after amino acid application, sugar content increased by 13-31.3%, vitamin C content increased by 3-42.6%.

18 kinds of amino acids: glycine, leucine, methionine, tyrosine, histidine, threonine, alanine, isoleucine, tryptophan, cysteine, lysine, aspartic acid, valine, phenylalanine, proline, serine, glutamic acid, arginine.







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